The Researchers of the Biblical Exodus
in Ancient History and Languages, Egyptology,
Geology, Biblical History, and Archaeology
Apart from the obvious visual evidence and the simple nature of basking in the wonders and weight of these discoveries, there is a whole another level to the story. Historical Timelines (Chronology), Ancient Hebrew, Biblical or Paleo-Hebrew, Archaeological discovers in the Middle East, Ancient History, and Geology are among the associated areas of research connected with the Biblical Exodus.
- Ryan Maruo's Timeline, Historical Accounts of Sinai in Arabia.
- Patterns of Evidence - Thinker Update Blog.
The Exodus Timeline (Chronology) - An Introduction
When you explore more details on the Exodus, one of the areas you may get into is the timing of Exodus events in relation to regional and world history. The common academic view at most universities, on the timing of the Biblical Exodus, is centered around the "Late Date Exodus." This popular academic view unfortunately leads many to believe that the Biblical Exodus did not truly take place and is myth - all because their Exodus timeline does not match or line up with Egyptian and regional history accounts recorded in the Bible. You can see why this it is important to properly date the Exodus and correlated it (match it) to other regional histories. Below are 3 main camps/groups of thought concerning dating of the Exodus and their supporting lecturers:
- Traditional "Late Date" Exodus
~1250 B.C. — Ramses II, 430 years in Egypt
– Israel Finkelstein: Wikipedia Bio, academia.edu.
– James K. Hoffmeier: Wikipedia Bio, academia.edu.
– Kenneth Kitchen: Wikipedia Bio.
- "Early Date" Exodus
~1446 B.C. — 430 years in Egypt
– Bryant Wood: Wikipedia Bio, Creation.com Bio, articles on BiblicalArchaeology.org
– Douglas Petrovich: academia.edu, Creation.com Bio.
- New Revised Egyptian Chronology
~1446 B.C. — 215 years in Egypt, alternative dynasty dating
– David Rohl: Wikipedia Bio, New Egyptian Chronology on Wikipedia.
While there are a lot of details in each theory, we will attempt to be brief, give an overview, and focus on the two theories based upon the appox. 1446 B.C. date.
New Revised Egyptian Chronology
~1446 B.C. alternative dynasty dating and Time in Egypt of 215 years
– David Rohl. See his videos on this page.
Video of the Wall of Time chart above - Wikipedia Article on the New Chronology
"Early Date" Exodus
~1446 B.C. and Time in Egypt of 430 years
– Bryant Wood, Douglas Petrovich
this section is in development
Ancient and Biblical (Paleo) Hebrew
Located at the Jabal al-Lawz area in Saudi Arabia are petroglyphs (rock carving inscriptions) that match what is known about the first Ancient Hebrew alphabet. Dr. Miles Jones writes that these petroglyphs "are written in the oldest alphabet of letters (Thamudic) known to historical science. They date to the fifteenth century B.C [1400s BC], the time of the Exodus, according to experts at the Saudi Ministry of Antiquities." Miles Jones is a linguist and author of "The Writing of God."
Also located throughout the western (Red Sea side) of Saudi Arabia are more similar Pre-Islamic petroglyph inscriptions that would match Israel's "Wandering in the Wilderness."
- Ryan Maruo: Photos of Proto-Hebrew Inscriptions at Mount Sinai.
- Pre-Islamic Period Inscriptions Exhibit (2016) - Smithsonian-Saudi Government:
"The (Thamudic) script was used from about 1500 BC to the 4th or 3rd century BC."
- Doug Petrovitch: New Discoveries Indicate Hebrew was World's Oldest Alphabet.
- SEE ALSO: Ancient and Paleo Hebrew Learning Materials on our Recommended Products Page.
- Chart showing changes in the first two Hebrew letters over the centuries.
From Dr. Frank Seekins' book: Hebrew Word Pictures.
Introduction to Ancient and Biblical (Paleo) Hebrew
There are two theories being presented here about the ancient origin of the Hebrew alphabet. Both theories use a 1450 BC Exodus dating and both identify the original Ancient Hebrew alphabet as the first phonetic alphabet in the history of mankind, from which all other alphabets have their origin. Both promote the idea the first Hebrew alphabet began a new era in literacy and learning for the common person; also that it was inspired by God so it would be easy for all mankind to read and know God's written Word.
One theory is the Ancient Hebrew alphabet was given by God to Moses and/or developed by Moses at Mount Sinai and the other theory is it originated in the time of Joseph in Egypt. The second theory includes the idea that Joseph's Hebrew was first original version called "Ancient Hebrew" and that Moses's Hebrew was the second version, called "Paleo-" "Biblical" or "Old Hebrew." Both theories connect the Ancient Hebrew alphabet to actually being, what is known in academia, as the Proto-Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, and/or the Thamudic alphabet - the original alphabet that all other alphabets came from, originating prior to Phoenician.
Wikipedia article on the History of the Hebrew Alphabet.
ABOUT WIKIPEDIA ARTICLES: One's Dating or Chronology theories can dramatically alter some conclusions about a topic significantly. Please take this into consideration when reading, that these articles are based upon traditional academic views and dating. Actual dates and conclusions based upon those dates can vary. For example: The trending view in Exodus research places the Exodus at ~1450 B.C., 200 years earlier than the traditional view in academia of ~1250 B.C.
Dr. Lennart Möller - The Exodus Case
www.TheExodusCase.org - Book on Amazon.com
David Rohl, Egyptologist
Advocate of the 1450 B.C. New Revised Egyptian Chronology (215 years in Egypt).
David Rohl's Official Blog
Miles Jones - The Writing of God
www.WritingOfGod.com - Book on Amazon.com
♦ Advocates that Ancient Hebrew was the first Alphabet.
Douglas Petrovich - The World's Oldest Alphabet
Creation.com Bio, academia.edu. Sample of Book, Book on Amazon.com / Carta Jerusalem, .
♦ Advocates that Ancient Hebrew was the first Alphabet.
♦ Advocates "Early Date" Exodus of ~ 1450 B.C. and 430 years in Egypt.
- Article: New Discoveries Indicate Hebrew was World's Oldest Alphabet.
- FoxNews Article from Dec 2016 on the book.
- Glen Fritz (Geologist) - Author of "Lost Sea of the EXODUS"
About Glen Fritz www.AncientExodus.com Book on Amazon.com
- Charles Whittaker - 2003 Dissertation: The Biblical Significance of Jabal al Lawz.